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电子商务如何运作?

电子商务是一种奇怪的东西。一方面,它看起来像是一个新的孩子,它将彻底改变网上交易的方式。另一方面,它的商业模式往往与已经存在了几个世纪的实体零售相同。

事实是两种观点都是有效的。电子商务与实体零售业务大致相同。然而,它以数字方式运作的事实引入了一些独特的商业元素。以下是电子商务的运作方式。

需要销售的产品或服务

这是商业的核心。必须有价值交换。如果交易的一方支付款项,另一方应提供产品或服务作为回报。我们已经达到了这样的程度,几乎所有在实体店销售的商品也在电子商务网站上销售 – 小工具,书籍,汽车,杂货,玩具和服装等。

电子商务时代也使新类别的产品易于销售。一个例子是数字商品,例如音乐,电子书,软件等。此外,电子商务可以在各种商品(如机票和杂志订阅)中轻松进行交易。

应该有接受订单的机制

当客户浏览您的电子商务网站并决定他们想要购买时,必须有一个接受他们订单的流程。运行此过程的软件称为购物车。

除了记录正在购买的内容和更新订单数据库之外,购物车还执行其他几项任务:

  • 计算税收和其他征税
  • 处理优惠券和其他折扣
  • 捕获客户的账单和交货地址
  • 向客户追加销售
  • 确保用户接受服务条款和其他销售条件
  • 代码的创建,例如发票号,订单号,跟踪号等
  • 向客户提供交付选项并添加相应的费用
  • 将客户转发到支付网关
  • (在可下载的数字商品的情况下)将付费客户重定向到下载页面。

我们需要一个支付机制

有一些电子商务网站,特别是在企业对企业空间,可能为购买提供信贷。在大多数情况下,电子商务交易涉及交易金钱。该过程由称为支付网关的软件进行。支付网关向客户提供支付选项,接受识别详细信息(如信用卡号),并使用密码,CVV代码或多种身份验证因素对客户进行身份验证

产品需要交付

我们同意那些认为有效的物流是成功开展电子商务业务的关键的人。在线购买最令人失望的特征之一是接收货物的不确定和过度延迟。

因此,电子商务企业需要确保在客户期望的期限内将正确的产品交付给客户,状况良好。由于物流是一项专业功能,因此多家电子商务企业将其外包给第三方物流供应商。

客户需要得到服务

客户需要在售前和售后服务。在销售之前,客户可能会对网站上未提及的产品功能有疑问。他们可能对定制和配件有疑问。销售后,客户可能会询问与他们已购买的产品或服务的使用,维修或增强相关的问题。

逆向物流需要管理

没有无差错产品这样的东西。结果,一些产品将被损坏或停止正常运行。有时会交付错误的产品。这种错误或损害会触发逆向物流过程。在通常模式中,货物从电子商务业务转移到客户。在逆向物流中,流程是相反的。

结论

电子商务业务有许多活动部分。要取得成功,您必须熟练地管理每一项。

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